Internet in a nutshell

The internet, a global network that has revolutionized the way we communicate, share information, and live our lives, has a rich history that many may not be fully aware of. While the internet itself was not created in the 1990s, a significant milestone occurred during this decade that changed the course of its history and made it accessible to people around the world.

This article delves into the inception of the internet, the pivotal role played by CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee, and how the World Wide Web became a free and open platform for all. We'll also explore the technical aspects that make the internet work, such as IP addresses and URLs, and how modern webpages are designed and hosted.

The Birth of the Internet and the Role of Tim Berners-Lee

Contrary to popular belief, the internet was not created in 1990. The foundational technologies that led to the internet were developed much earlier, with roots tracing back to the 1960s. However, a groundbreaking event occurred in 1990 that would shape the internet as we know it today. Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, invented the World Wide Web.

Berners-Lee's invention was revolutionary because it provided a way to navigate the sprawling landscape of the internet easily. Before this, the internet was primarily a tool for scientists and researchers to share data. The World Wide Web transformed it into a user-friendly platform where anyone could publish documents and make them accessible to the global population.

Freedom and Accessibility: The Internet Becomes Free in 1993

In 1993, another monumental event took place: the World Wide Web became free for everyone to use. This was a watershed moment in the history of the internet. The freedom to access and publish on the web meant that information could be disseminated more widely and rapidly than ever before.

This democratization of information had profound implications. It led to the birth of new industries, transformed existing ones, and even played a role in shaping global politics. The free internet allowed for the rise of social media, e-commerce, and countless other applications that we take for granted today.

Understanding IP Addresses and URLs

At the core of the internet's functionality are Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. These numerical labels are used to identify and locate files and documents on the internet. However, IP addresses are not particularly user-friendly, which is where Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) come into play.

URLs, commonly known as web addresses, are easy-to-remember references that point to specific IP addresses. For example, when you type "" into your browser, it translates this URL into an IP address to locate the website's files. This system makes it much easier for users to navigate the web, contributing to its widespread adoption.

The Anatomy of Modern Webpages

Modern webpages are far more complex than their early counterparts. They are written in HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and often include various Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for styling, scripts for functionality, and multimedia elements like images and videos.

These webpages are hosted on web servers, which are specialized computers designed to store publicly accessible files. When you access a website, your browser communicates with the web server to retrieve the necessary files, which are then rendered on your screen. This seamless interaction is the result of years of technological advancement and innovation.

Tim Berners-Lee: The Guardian of the Web

Tim Berners-Lee's contributions to the internet extend beyond its invention. He has been a tireless advocate for keeping the World Wide Web an open, nonproprietary, and free platform. His vision was encapsulated in his entry in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century, published in March 1999.

The entry reads: "He wove the World Wide Web and created a mass medium for the 21st century. The World Wide Web is Berners-Lee's alone. He designed it. He loosed it on the world. And he more than anyone else has fought to keep it open, nonproprietary and free." This statement underscores the immense impact Berners-Lee has had not just on the internet, but on society as a whole.


The internet has come a long way since its inception, and much of its evolution can be attributed to the pioneering work of Tim Berners-Lee. His invention of the World Wide Web and his ongoing efforts to keep it free and open have made the internet an indispensable part of modern life.

As we continue to rely on the internet for everything from communication to commerce, it's crucial to understand its history and the principles that guide its development. By doing so, we can better appreciate the incredible tool we have at our fingertips and ensure that it remains a resource for everyone, now and in the future.